Keywords & Identifier
Variables & Constants
Bit wise Operators
C for Loop
C while Loop
break and continue
Recursion in C
Arrays & Functions
Strings in C
Pointers & Arrays
Pointers & Functions
Structure & Pointers
Structure & Functions
Before starting with the C Programming Tutorial lets understand what C Language, How it became so Popular many of you must have question How to learn C language, here in this C Tutorial you’ll learn C language basics, and this C Tutorial for Beginners to Advance, and will Excel and Clear All your Doubts on C Language. So why you’re waiting? Let us Start With this C Online Tutorial.
- The C programming language is a structure oriented programming language, developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie
- C programming language features were derived from an earlier language called “B” (Basic Combined Programming Language – BCPL)
- C language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system
- In 1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition “The C Programming Language” and commonly known as K&R C
- In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The resulting definition, the ANSI standard, or “ANSI C”, was completed late 1988.
- C89/C90 standard – First standardized specification for C language was developed by the American National Standards Institute in 1989. C89 and C90 standards refer to the same programming language.
- C99 standard – Next revision was published in 1999 that introduced new features like advanced data types and other changes.
- C11 standard adds new features to C programming language and libraries like type generic macros, anonymous structures, improved Unicode support, atomic operations, multi-threading and bounds-checked functions. It also makes some portions of the existing C99 library optional and improves compatibility with C++.
- Embedded C includes features not available in C like fixed-point arithmetic, named address spaces, and basic I/O hardware addressing.
- Operating systems, C compiler, and all UNIX application programs are written in C language
- It is also called as a procedure-oriented programming language. The C language is reliable, simple and easy to use. C has been coded in assembly language.
C language is one of the powerful languages. Below are some of the features of C language.
- Efficiency and Effectiveness
The C programming language is used for developing system applications that form a major portion of operating systems such as Windows, UNIX and Linux. Below are some examples of C being used.
- Database systems
- Graphics packages
- Word processors
- Operating system development
- Compilers and Assemblers
- Network drivers
There are 3 levels of programming languages. They are,
- Middle-Level languages:
Middle-level languages don’t provide all the built-in functions found in high-level languages but provide all building blocks that we need to produce the result we want. Examples: C, C++
- High-Level languages:
High-level languages provide almost everything that the programmer might need to do as already built into the language. Example: Java, Python
- Low-Level languages:
Low-level languages provide nothing other than access to the machines basic instruction set. Example: Assembler
- In this type of language, large programs are divided into small programs called functions
- Prime focus is on functions and procedures that operate on the data
- Data moves freely around the systems from one function to another
- Program structure follows “Top Down Approach”
- Examples: C, Pascal, ALGOL and Modula-2
- In this type of language, programs are divided into objects
- Prime focus is in the data that is being operated and not on the functions or procedures
- Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions
- Program structure follows “Bottom UP Approach”
- Examples: C++, Java and C# (C sharp)
Non-structure oriented language:
- There is no specific structure for programming this language. Examples: BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN
- The C language is a structure oriented programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie.
- The C language is belonging to a middle-level programming language.
- Operating system programs such as Windows, Unix, Linux are written in C language.
- C89/C90 and C99 are two standardized editions of C language.
- C has been written in assembly language.