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Learn C Programming

C is a high-level and general-purpose programming language that is ideal for developing firmware or portable applications. Originally intended for writing system software, C was developed at Bell Labs by Dennis Ritchie for the Unix Operating System in the early 1970s.

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C Programming Basics
Keywords & Identifier
Variables & Constants
Data Types


Operators and Expressions
Arithmetic Operators
Assignment Operators
Relational Operators
Logical Operators
Bit wise Operators
Conditional Operators
Increment/decrement Operators
Special Operators


if…else Statement
C for Loop
C while Loop
break and continue
switch Statement
Decision Examples


Functions Introduction
User-defined Function
Function Types
Recursion in C
Variable Scope


C Arrays Introduction
Multidimensional Array
Arrays & Functions
Strings in C
String Functions
Array Examples


Pointers & Arrays
Pointers & Functions
Memory Management
Pointer Examples


Structure & Pointers
Structure & Functions
C Unions
Structure Examples
Files Handling

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C Language History

  • The C programming language is a structure oriented programming language, developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie
  • C programming language features were derived from an earlier language called “B” (Basic Combined Programming Language – BCPL)
  • C language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system
  • In 1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition “The C Programming Language” and commonly known as K&R C
  • In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The resulting definition, the ANSI standard, or “ANSI C”, was completed late 1988.


C Programming Language Standards

  • C89/C90 standard – First standardized specification for C language was developed by the American National Standards Institute in 1989. C89 and C90 standards refer to the same programming language.
  • C99 standard – Next revision was published in 1999 that introduced new features like advanced data types and other changes.


C11 and Embedded C Language

  • C11 standard adds new features to C programming language and libraries like type generic macros, anonymous structures, improved Unicode support, atomic operations, multi-threading and bounds-checked functions. It also makes some portions of the existing C99 library optional and improves compatibility with C++.
  • Embedded C includes features not available in C like fixed-point arithmetic, named address spaces, and basic I/O hardware addressing.
  • Operating systems, C compiler, and all UNIX application programs are written in C language
  • It is also called as a procedure-oriented programming language. The C language is reliable, simple and easy to use. C has been coded in assembly language.


Features Of C Programming Language:

C language is one of the powerful languages. Below are some of the features of C language.

  • Reliability
  • Portability
  • Flexibility
  • Interactivity
  • Modularity
  • Efficiency and Effectiveness


Uses of C Programming Language

The C programming language is used for developing system applications that form a major portion of operating systems such as Windows, UNIX and Linux. Below are some examples of C being used.

  • Database systems
  • Graphics packages
  • Word processors
  • Spreadsheets
  • Operating system development
  • Compilers and Assemblers
  • Network drivers
  • Interpreters


Which Level Is C Language Belonging to?

There are 3 levels of programming languages. They are,

  1. Middle-Level languages:
    Middle-level languages don’t provide all the built-in functions found in high-level languages but provide all building blocks that we need to produce the result we want. Examples: C, C++
  2. High-Level languages:
    High-level languages provide almost everything that the programmer might need to do as already built into the language. Example: Java, Python
  3. Low-Level languages:
    Low-level languages provide nothing other than access to the machines basic instruction set. Example: Assembler


C Language Is a Structured Language

Structure-oriented language:

  • In this type of language, large programs are divided into small programs called functions
  • Prime focus is on functions and procedures that operate on the data
  • Data moves freely around the systems from one function to another
  • Program structure follows “Top Down Approach”
  • Examples: C, Pascal, ALGOL and Modula-2

Object-oriented language:

  • In this type of language, programs are divided into objects
  • Prime focus is in the data that is being operated and not on the functions or procedures
  • Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions
  • Program structure follows “Bottom UP Approach”
  • Examples: C++, Java and C# (C sharp)

Non-structure oriented language:

  • There is no specific structure for programming this language. Examples: BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN


Key Points To Remember In C Language

  1. The C language is a structure oriented programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie.
  2. The C language is belonging to a middle-level programming language.
  3. Operating system programs such as Windows, Unix, Linux are written in C language.
  4. C89/C90 and C99 are two standardized editions of C language.
  5. C has been written in assembly language.